Public Health England (PHE) has submitted a planning application for the building that will see the majority of its staff and activities move to Harlow in Essex.
PHE has submitted the application to Harlow District Council following what it said has been “an extensive consultation with stakeholders and the local community”.
The former GlaxoSmithKline site was bought by PHE in July 2017 and once converted will house 2,750 PHE staff by 2024, with a possible future expansion to 3,250.
PHE currently employs 5,500 people.
If permission is given, the refurbished site will see PHE move most of its current facilities at Porton in Wiltshire, Colindale in north London, and from its central London headquarters to Essex.
Among the proposals for the Harlow site is a vow by PHE to work closely with local schools and colleges to offer work experience and apprenticeships.
Richard Gleave, deputy chief executive at PHE, said: “We want to make Harlow our home and we believe the science campus will bring long-term benefits for the area, as well as unique opportunities for public health research on a national and international scale.”